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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
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About Instrument and its applications-
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) is the most widely used surface analysis technique because it can be applied to a broad range of materials and provides valuable quantitative and chemical state information from the surface of the material being studied. The average depth of analysis for an XPS measurement is approximately 5 nm. The core technology of the VersaProbe III is PHI's patented, monochromatic, micro-focused, scanning x-ray source which provides excellent large area and superior micro-area spectroscopy performance. Spectroscopy, depth profiling and imaging can all be performed over the full range of x-ray beam sizes including the minimum x-ray beam size of less than 10 ┬Ám. Spatial distribution information can be obtained by scanning the micro focused x-ray beam across the sample surface. Depth distribution information can be obtained by combining XPS measurements with ion milling (sputtering) to characterize thin film structures. The information XPS provides about surface layers or thin film structures is important for many industrial and research applications where surface or thin film composition plays a critical role in performance including: nano-materials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications.

Applications:
The variety of samples has been measured by XPS systems such as pure metal (Cu, Al, C, Zn, Pd, Pt, Au, Ag), oxides (TiO2, ZnO, ZrO, TaO, WO3), nitrides (TiN, TiSiN, ZrN, NbN), oxynitrides (TiON, ZrON), metal alloys (Al based, Fe based, W based), semiconductors (MoS2, WS2, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3), polymer samples (PMMA, PET), battery materials (Li, Na). The samples are measured for various measurements like binding energy, elemental composition, electronic states, oxidation states, empirical formula, work function, depth profiling and mapping.

General Information-
Make- Physical Electronics
Model- PHI 5000 VersaProbe III
Year of Installation- 2017

Specifications-
1) Scanned, micro-focused, monochromatic x-ray beam
2) X-ray beam induced secondary electron imaging
3) Dual beam charge neutralization
4) Large area XPS
5) Micro-area XPS
6) Sputter depth profiling
7) Floating column argon ion gun
8) Compucentric Zalar rotation
9) Angle dependent XPS
10) Five axis automated sample manipulator
11) 25 mm and 60 mm diameter sample holders
12) C60 ion gun
13) UV light source for UPS

Sample Requirements-
For XPS:-
1) Solid sample size:
5 mm (l) X 5 mm (b) X 2 mm (h)
5 mm (dia) X 2 mm (h)
2) Powder sample weight:
20 mg
For UPS:-
8 mm (l) X 8 mm (b) X 2 mm (h)
8 mm (dia) X 2 mm (h)

Contact Person-
Dr. Vipin Chawla
Technical Officer - III
E-mail: vipin.mic@iitr.ac.in
Tel: +91-1332-284580